A femtholon represents mass and is a hole in the substance that carries light. At severe collisions light can create femtholons and can orbit around them. The femtholon is a stable particle if the light wave can form a stable standing light wave, from which the forces are in equilibrium with the forces to maintain the hole.
Letter 1: Introduction
My curiosity always kept me busy with the mysteries of nature. Especially the discoveries of black holes and creation and annihilation of matter. To have a better understanding of these phenomena I tried to find a model that can describe them in a simple universal model. I did that in the spirit of Einstein by the application of Gedanken experiments.
If light is energy, mass is energy and a black hole is mass then it should be possible that a particle consist of a tiny black hole and a standing light wave in equilibrium with each other. For this “Gedanken” it is assumed that light, just like other wave phenomena, should propagate in some substance. The second “Gedanken” is that if light cannot be present in a black hole also the light carrying substance is not present in a black hole. The third “Gedanken” is that this substance has some density maintained by some forces and that these forces are in equilibrium with the forces generated by light. With these “Gedanken” I came up with a model with the following assumptions:
- During the creation of matter by light, the light remains light, but in a standing wave;
- During the creation of a black hole by the condensation of particles after a super nova, the particles were already tiny holes, which I will call ”femtholons”, referring to the classical diameter scale of fundamental particles and also referring to the Greek word holos, which means universal;
- Light propagates in something, which I will call light carrier or “licar”;
- A black hole is a hole in the licar, where of course light cannot propagate or exist;
- To create a light wave, licar must have some inertial behavior (time delay) and some restoring behavior (potential energy as elasticity or pressure).
Figure 1: Schematic impression of a femtholon consisting of a tiny black hole in equilibrium with a surrounding standing light wave
To describe a hole licar should have some density, while the potential energy will depend on the gradient of this density.
At the creation of a particle by light after a collision with some matter, a femtholon in licar will be generated by the exchange of the kinetic energy of the photon and the potential energy required for the creation of a femtholon. In this process the photon will be bound by the hole and will transform in a standing wave in equilibrium with the potential energy of the femtholon. Or in other words the photon orbits on the surface tension of the femtholon boundary. To create a standing wave the shapes will be equivalent with the Eigen modes of a vibrating (hollow) ball, but then accounting for electrodynamics and other physical laws involved.
Figure 2: Schematic animation of a ground state femtholon
It is known that at the creation of matter by light always two particles are created; one particle and one anti particle. In the spirit of the “Gedanken experiment” it is obvious that the shape of the vibration modes of the standing photon, the femtholon and the anti femtholon are anti-symmetric and will be the mirror shape of each other. The symmetry of a photon can be expressed by the polarization of the light wave. So the polarization of the standing light wave might be used for the description of the particle. By definition of the model a wave with positive polarization is connected with a normal particle and a wave with a negative polarization is connected with an anti particle.
Figure 3: Schematic animation of the creation of a femtholon pair by the collision of a suitable photon with matter, followed by the annihilation of the femtholons.
May be more shapes (states) are possible, while the identification of the particle is given by this shape. In the “Gedanken experiment” the possible shapes might be the number of fundamental particles as identified in particle physics, one of them might be Higgs particle.
It is also possible that the standing waves are the strings as used in string theory.
Other theories using standing waves are “matter is made of waves”, but in this theory there is no explanation of black holes, particle creation and annihilation.
figure 4: Schematic animation of femtholons with possible other shapes
Assumptions to make the model fit with real physical phenomena
Of course it is nice to have some universal model but it will make sense if it can be used to describe and maybe predict all physical phenomena. In the sense of the “Gedanken experiment” I will try to find some global descriptions for several phenomena , which might be right or wrong:
- Due to the property of the Licar density the potential energy of femtholons will increase if they come closer to each other and is maximal if they are condensed together; the resulting attracting force that is associated with this energy might be gravity;
- Electrical charge and magnetism should be properties of licar, expressed in the dielectric constant and the permeability both describing the velocity of light; the electric charge of a particle will depend on the shape of the vibration mode of the standing light wave, leaving a charge residue released by the created standing photon; Never the less the behavior of electricity and magnetism in Licar should obey the existing laws of electrodynamics;
- The femtholons attract each other by the interaction with the density of photon states or the so called Casimir force; This force might be one of the nuclear forces that bind particles in the nucleus of atoms
- Due to the fine structure of the lobes of the vibration mode of the standing light wave at short distances the fine structure will interact and will depend on the shape; If the vibration modes of two particles are mirror identical (opposite polarization of their standing waves, as will be for a particle and his anti particle), they will attract each other with a very large force; If these particles collide the force will be larger than the repelling force, the femtholons will implode, the standing waves will match and condense together, the particles will annihilate and the then unbound original wave will continue his way, taking with it the released energy; This might explain particle annihilation;
- At a large distance hardly any interaction of the finer structure of the femtholon shape will be measurable and only the average residues of gravity and charge are sensible;
- Because particles and their anti particle have opposite charge the polarization of the standing photon should determine the charge residue of the particle in licar too;
- If the shapes of two particle are not mirror identical, then also at a short distance they will repel each other with a strong force that is stronger than the Casimir force and no annihilation will occur; the forces will depend on the measure of equivalence and might be the repelling nuclear forces as found in the nucleus of atoms;
- By moving in licar the femtholons will feel the inertial behavior of licar and need a force to accelerate them in licar which should obey Newton’s and Einstein´s laws;
- The standing light wave is still an electromagnetic wave and thus the femtholon cannot move faster than light and the femtholon should obey Einstein’s relativity theory;
- Due to the standing light wave the femtholon has wave behavior and due to the tiny hole the femtholon has particle behavior and should obey quantum physics;
- The mass of the femtholon is equal to the density of the licar that is released by the hole and equivalent with the energy of the standing wave, obeying Einstein’s equation E=mc2;
- The spin of the femtholon depends on the vibration shape of the standing wave; if the spin is an integer the waves move identical and the femtholons will behave as a Bose-Einstein condensate(super conduction, super fluidity, Maser); if not, the waves are not identical and the femtholons should obey Pauli’s principle;
- At the very moment a photon collides with matter a large change in impulse is generated, which can create other photons and tiny holes in licar; if two photons with opposite polarization will find suitable holes to realize stable standing waves two particles will be created; if not the holes will implode and the photon will reflect and continue his way;
- Possible femtholons might be the fundamental particles as found by particle physics; because the number of possible stable femtholons is limited also the number of fundamental particles is limited;
- It is not known what is the maximum light intensity that licar can carry; maybe there is some maximum intensity, above which the licar will explode, leaving a large black hole and then if the explosion is large enough, split into femtholons ; maybe this might be a big bang;
- The universe will be closed if in infinity there is no licar or in other words infinity is a large black hole and just one of the finite number of large black holes already present in the universe;
- The universe is open if licar is also present in infinity.
Some remarks can be made on the creation of a big bang.
If energy or light is present in the universe and the density of the photon states is chaotic, then there is a very small possibility that at some point the intensity of light is near infinity. Since the time the universe exists is in principle infinite, even an event with a very small possibility will happen. So if licar has a maximum potential in light intensity then above this intensity a big bang might be created. Other ones maybe with larger explosions and with other physics or fundamental particles might happen as well.
Another remark is the equivalency of the femtholon model with a mechanical analogue. This analogue happens in a liquid excited by ultrasonic sound in which the pressure in the interaction of the fluid by the sound will be lower than the vapor pressure. If that happens in equilibrium with the sound (phonons) vapor holes in the liquid occur, the so called cavitations. Also other hole models, for instance the positive charged holes in a semiconductor are used.
Licar might consist of the density of photon states as used by the explanation of the Casimir force. In that case universe is only filled with propagating photons and standing photons surrounding empty holes without photons. However due to the properties of the dielectric constant and the permeability it is more plausible that it is filled with some substance as already proposed by the old Greeks, called “eather”. If it is a substance then the electromagnetic field theory will have another image, but also substances can be described by fields, eg. pressure and velocity fields. So the laws and field theory of electrodynamics and gravity will not change and field theory can be maintained.
It is hard to find a model for the large black holes, which should be surrounded by many standing light waves. A possibility is the presence of a super femtholon surrounded by a standing super photon cloud. The Licar density in a large black hole itself will be absolute zero and should be able to bind this cloud.
If it is assumed that there is a maximum photon intensity in the cloud which can be carried by licar then in the latter model also a big bang theory is present. Then if the black hole is so large that the maximum intensity is exceeded the black hole will explode by creating a new big bang.
As can be concluded from the conceptual “Gedanken” above there are enough possibilities to come to a simple universal model of physics, models that might be easier to work with and which might give better insight and the discovery of new phenomena. Far-fetched events might be the possibility to change the polarity of a standing photon. Then anti particles can be created from normal particles and a new way to create energy. Another far-fetched event is the creation of similar particles with opposite charge (not anti particles), These particles will be bound with nuclear forces and will form very strong materials. Also more realistic but still important phenomena could be found, therefore further development of the femtholon theory is important. Of course not all assumptions will be true but never the less enough possibilities will remain or can be adapted.
For the acceptance of the femtholon model more detailed models aided by mathematics should be developed in which all known physical phenomena can be described in detail.
I will go on by developing the femtholon theory and invite you to do the same. I also invite you to search for improvement or for better models. It is also possible to use parts of the model and implement or integrate it in existing models as for instance string theory and fundamental particle theory.
Drs. ing. Franklin Hagg
Alkmaar, The Netherlands
In the next letter I will go on by development of a more detailed description of the femtholon and standing photon shape. For this development I will assume that the speed of light is proportional with the licar density. For the density distribution around the femtholon center I will use different statistical distributions with a lower density in the center and undisturbed density in the far field. Due to this distribution a radial density gradient will exist. Due to the gradient the photon will have a lower speed at a low distance to the center of the femtholon and the light will bend tangentially. If the density distribution of licar and the wave number of the photon fit, the photon will be bound in a standing wave. The reaction force of the bending photon should be in equilibrium with the licar pressure that tries to implode the femtholon. All these boundary conditions will leave only a very limited number of possible stable femtholons.